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 Urban Combat

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MonoTheElderish
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PostSubject: Urban Combat    Thu Apr 18, 2013 10:22 pm

NOTE FROM MONO: This is applicable in ALL FPS games that allow tactical movement. Regardless of the era portrayed


URBAN COMBAT SKILLS
Successful combat operations in urban areas depend on the proper employment of the rifle squad. Each member must be skilled in moving, entering buildings, clearing rooms, employing hand grenades, selecting and using fighting positions, navigating in urban areas, and camouflage.

Section I. MOVEMENT

Movement in urban areas is the first fundamental skill the soldier must master. Movement techniques must be practiced until they become habitual. To reduce exposure to enemy fire, the soldier avoids open areas, avoids silhouetting himself, and selects his next covered position before movement.

3-1. CROSSING OPEN AREAS

Open areas, such as streets, alleys, and parks, should be avoided. They are natural kill zones for enemy crew-served weapons or snipers. They can be crossed safely if the individual or small-unit leader applies certain fundamentals including using smoke from hand grenades or smoke pots to conceal movement. When employing smoke as an obscurant, keep in mind that thermal sighting systems can see through smoke. Also, when smoke has been thrown in an open area, the enemy may choose to engage with suppressive fires into the smoke cloud.

a. Before moving to another position, the soldier makes a visual reconnaissance, selects the position offering the best cover and concealment, and determines the route he takes to get to that position.

b. The soldier develops a plan for his own movement. He runs the shortest distance between buildings and moves along the far building to the next position, reducing the time he is exposed to enemy fire.

3-2. MOVEMENT PARALLEL TO BUILDINGS

Soldiers and small units may not always be able to use the inside of buildings as routes of advance and must move on the outside of the buildings (Figure 3-1). Smoke, suppressive fires, and cover and concealment should be used to hide movement. The soldier moves parallel to the side of the building (maintaining at least 12 inches of separation between himself and the wall to avoid rabbit rounds, ricochets and rubbing or bumping the wall), stays in the shadow, presents a low silhouette, and moves rapidly to his next position (Figure 3-2). If an enemy gunner inside the building fires on a soldier, he exposes himself to fire from other squad members providing overwatch. An enemy gunner farther down the street would have difficulty detecting and engaging the soldier.










Figure 3-1. Selection of the next position.










Figure 3-2. Soldier moving outside building.











3-3. MOVEMENT PAST WINDOWS

Windows present another hazard to the soldier. The most common mistakes are exposing the head in a first-floor window and not being aware of basement windows.

a. When using the correct technique for passing a first-floor window, the soldier stays below the window level and near the side of the building (Figure 3-3). He makes sure he does not silhouette himself in the window. An enemy gunner inside the building would have to expose himself to covering fires if he tried to engage the soldier.





^Figure 3-3. Soldier moving past windows.^


b. The same techniques used in passing first-floor windows are used when passing basement windows. A soldier should not walk or run past a basement window, since he presents a good target to an enemy gunner inside the building. The soldier should stay close to the wall of the building and step or jump past the window without exposing his legs (Figure 3-4).








^Figure 3-4. Soldier passing basement windows.^


3-4. MOVEMENT AROUND CORNERS

The area around a corner must be observed before the soldier moves. The most common mistake a soldier makes at a corner is allowing his weapon to extend beyond the corner exposing his position (this mistake is known as flagging your weapon). He should show his head below the height an enemy soldier would expect to see it. The soldier lies flat on the ground and does not extend his weapon beyond the corner of the building. He wears his Kevlar helmet and only exposes his head (at ground level) enough to permit observation (Figure 3-5). Another corner clearing technique that is used when speed is required is the pie-ing method. This procedure is done by aiming the weapon beyond the corner into the direction of travel (without flagging) and side-stepping around the corner in a circular fashion with the muzzle as the pivot point (Figure 3-6).






^Figure 3-5. Correct technique for looking around a corner.^










^Figure 3-6. Pie-ing a corner.^






3-16. HIGH INTENSITY VERSUS PRECISION CLEARING TECHNIQUES

Precision clearing techniques do not replace other techniques currently being used to clear buildings and rooms during high-intensity combat. Specifically, they do not replace the clearing technique in which a fragmentation or concussion grenade is thrown into a room before the US forces enter. Precision room clearing techniques are used when the tactical situation calls for room-by-room clearing of a relatively intact building in which enemy combatants and noncombatants may be intermixed. They involve increased risk in order to clear a building methodically, rather than using overwhelming firepower to eliminate or neutralize all its inhabitants.

a. From a conceptual standpoint, standard high-intensity room clearing drills can be thought of as a deliberate attack. The task is to seize control of the room with the purpose being the neutralization of the enemy in the room. The fragmentation and or concussion grenades can be thought of as the preparatory fires used before the assault. As in a deliberate attack against any objective, the assaulting elements move into position using covered and concealed routes. The preparatory fires (fragmentation and or concussion grenades) are initiated when soldiers are as close to the objective as they can get without being injured by the fires. The assault element follows the preparatory fires onto the objective as closely as possible. A rapid, violent assault overwhelms and destroys the enemy force and seizes the objective.

b. Compared to the deliberate attack represented by high-intensity room clearing techniques, precision room clearing techniques are more conceptually like a reconnaissance in force or perhaps an infiltration attack. During a reconnaissance in force, the friendly unit seeks to determine the enemy's locations, dispositions, strength, and intentions. Once the enemy is located, the friendly force is fully prepared to engage and destroy it, especially if surprise is achieved. The friendly force retains the options of not employing preparatory fires (fragmentation and or concussion grenades) if they are not called for (the enemy is not in the room) or if they are inappropriate (there are noncombatants present also). The attacking unit may choose to create a diversion (use a stun grenade) to momentarily distract the defender while they enter and seize the objective.

c. The determination of which techniques to employ is up to the leader on the scene and is based on his analysis of the existing METT-TC conditions. The deliberate attack (high-intensity techniques), with its devastating suppressive and preparatory fires, neutralizes everyone in the room and is less dangerous to the assaulting troops. The reconnaissance in force (precision techniques) conserves ammunition, reduces damage, and minimizes the chance of noncombatant casualties. Unfortunately, even when well-executed, it is very stressful and hazardous for friendly troops.

d. Certain precision room clearing techniques, such as methods of squad and fire team movement, the various firing stances, weapon positioning, and reflexive shooting, are useful for all combat in confined areas. Other techniques, such as entering a room without first neutralizing known enemy occupants by fire or explosives, are appropriate in only some tactical situations.

e. Generally, if a room or building is occupied by an alerted enemy force that is determined to resist, and if most or all noncombatants are clear, overwhelming firepower should be employed to avoid friendly casualties. In such a situation, supporting fires, demolitions, and fragmentation grenades should be used to neutralize a space before friendly troops enter.

f. In some combat situations the use of heavy supporting fires and demolitions would cause unacceptable collateral damage or would unnecessarily slow the unit's movement. In other situations, often during stability and support operations, enemy combatants are so intermixed with noncombatants that US forces cannot, in good conscience, use all available supporting fires. Room-by-room clearing may be necessary. At such times, precision room clearing techniques are most appropriate.

3-17. PRINCIPLES OF PRECISION ROOM CLEARING

Battles that occur at close quarters, such as within a room or hallway, must be planned and executed with care. Units must train, practice, and rehearse precision room clearing techniques until each fire team and squad operates smoothly. Each unit member must understand the principles of precision room clearing: surprise, speed, and controlled violence of action.

a. Surprise. Surprise is the key to a successful assault at close quarters. The fire team or squad clearing the room must achieve surprise, if only for seconds, by deceiving, distracting, or startling the enemy. Sometimes stun grenades may be used to achieve surprise. These are more effective against a nonalert, poorly trained enemy than against alert, well-trained soldiers.

b. Speed. Speed provides a measure of security to the clearing unit. It allows soldiers to use the first few vital seconds provided by surprise to their maximum advantage. In precision room clearing, speed is not how fast you enter the room, rather it's how fast the threat is eliminated and the room is cleared.

c. Controlled Violence of Action. Controlled violence of action eliminates or neutralizes the enemy while giving him the least chance of inflicting friendly casualties. It is not limited to the application of firepower only, but also involves a soldier mind-set of complete domination. Each of the principles of precision room clearing has a synergistic relationship to the others. Controlled violence coupled with speed increases surprise. Hence, successful surprise allows increased speed.

3-18. FUNDAMENTALS OF PRECISION ROOM CLEARING

The ten fundamentals of precision room clearing address actions soldiers take while moving along confined corridors to the room to be cleared, while preparing to enter the room, during room entry and target engagement, and after contact. Team members—

Move tactically and silently while securing the corridors to the room to be cleared.

Carry only the minimum amount of equipment. (Rucksacks and loose items carried by soldiers tire them, slow their pace, and cause noise.)

Arrive undetected at the entry to the room in the correct order of entrance, prepared to enter on a single command.

Enter quickly and dominate the room. Move immediately to positions that allow complete control of the room and provide unobstructed fields of fire.

Eliminate all enemy in the room by fast, accurate, and discriminating fires.

Gain and maintain immediate control of the situation and all personnel in the room.

Confirm whether enemy casualties are wounded or dead. Disarm, segregate, and treat the wounded. Search all enemy casualties.

Perform a cursory search of the room. Determine if a detailed search is required.

Evacuate all wounded and any friendly dead.

Mark the room as cleared using a simple, clearly identifiable marking in accordance with the unit SOP.

Maintain security and be prepared to react to more enemy contact at any moment. Do not neglect rear security.

3-19. COMPOSITION OF THE CLEARING TEAM

Precision room clearing techniques are designed to be executed by the standard four-man fire team. Because of the confined spaces typical of building- and room-clearing operations, units larger than squads quickly become unwieldy. When shortages of personnel demand it, room clearing can be conducted with two- or three-man teams, but four-man teams are preferred. Using fewer personnel greatly increases the combat strain and risks.












b. Hallway Clearing Techniques. The clearing team must always be alert. Team members provide security at the breach point and to the rear. Inside buildings they provide security laterally down corridors, and upward if near stairs or landings. The two basic techniques for moving down hallways are shown in Figure 3-39. Hallway intersections are dangerous areas and should be approached cautiously (Figures 3-40 and 3-41).

(1) Serpentine. The serpentine technique is used in narrow hallways. The number 1 man provides security to the front. His sector of fire includes any enemy soldiers who appear at the far end of the hall or from any doorways near the end. The number 2 and number 3 men cover the left and right sides of the number 1 man. Their sectors of fire include any soldiers who appear suddenly from nearby doorways on either side of the hall. The number 4 man, normally carrying the M249, provides rear protection against any enemy soldiers suddenly appearing behind the clearing team.

(2) Rolling T. The rolling-T technique is used in wide hallways. The number 1 and number 2 men move abreast, covering the opposite side of the hallway from the one they are walking on. The number 3 man covers the far end of the hallway from a position behind the number 1 and number 2 men, firing between them. Once again, the number 4 man provides rear security.









NOTE FROM MONO: If for some reason you wish to know more about Urban warfare, or room clearance in general, take a look at this.
(http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/3-06-11/ch3.htm) If nothing else, This will improve how you move through buildings in RO2








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PostSubject: Re: Urban Combat    Thu Apr 18, 2013 10:56 pm

Surprised pretty pictures

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PostSubject: Re: Urban Combat    Thu Apr 18, 2013 11:04 pm

Glad you think so!

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PostSubject: Re: Urban Combat    Thu Apr 18, 2013 11:13 pm

I especially like the one with the Master Chief in it!

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PostSubject: Re: Urban Combat    Thu Apr 18, 2013 11:18 pm

Lol Masterchief

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